All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam in Indian Politics
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK)
President: Sasikala Natarajan
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), is an Indian political party in the states of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry. It is currently in power in Tamil Nadu and is the third largest party in the Indian Parliament. It is a Dravidian party and was founded by M. G. Ramachandran (popularly known as MGR) on 17 October 1972 as a breakaway faction of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). From 1989 to 2016, AIADMK was led by Late J. Jayalalithaa, who served as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu on several occasions.
AIADMK In MGR's Leadership(1972-87)
The party was founded in 1972 as Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (ADMK) by MGR, a veteran Tamil film star and a popular politician, as a breakaway faction of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) led by M. Karunanidhi, the then chief minister of Tamil Nadu, owing to serious differences between the two.Later, MGR prefixed the All India (AI) tag to the party's name.Since its inception, the relationship between the AIADMK and DMK has been marked by mutual contempt.
MGR used his fan network for building the party cadre, and estimates claim his party recruited more than a million members from the first two months of creation.The party tasted victory for the first time by winning the Dindigul parliamentary by-election in 1973 and also won the Coimbatore assembly by-election a year later.As of 2 April 1973, AIADMK emerged as the third largest political party represented by 11 MLAs in the Assembly.
By 31 January 1976, AIADMK emerged as the second largest political party represented by 16 MLAs in the Assembly. AIADMK grew close to the Congress by supporting the Emergency which occurred between 1975 and 1977.
AIADMK In Assembly Election(1989)
Following MGR's death, his wife, actress-turned-politician Janaki Ramachandran, rose to the party's leadership and led the government for 24 days as the state's 1st woman chief minister until the state assembly was suspended in January 1988 and President's rule imposed.
The party began to crumble due to infighting and broke into two factions, one under Janaki Ramachandran and the other under J. Jayalalithaa, an associate of MGR and another film actress-turned-politician who had starred with MGR in many movies. The assembly elections in 1989 saw the DMK regaining power after 12 years in the opposition with Karunanidhi returning as the Chief Minister for the third time.
AIADMK, due to its split, suffered heavily in the elections, with the Janaki and Jayalalithaa factions winning only 2 and 27 seats, respectively.Following AIADMK's rout in the elections, the factions led by Jayalalithaa and Janaki merged under the former's leadership.
The DMK government was dismissed in 1990 by the Central Government led by Prime Minister Chandra Shekhar, an ally of the AIADMK at that time, on charges that the constitutional machinery in the state had broken down.