Naxal Problem In India

The nexal problem is one of the most problem in india it is spred over in many state of india like Chhattishgrah Jharkhand west Bengal Bihar Maharastra Odisha Andra Pradesh Etc. The Naxal movement started on 25 May 1967 in Naxalbari village of W.B.it started W.B.by Kanu Sanyal and Charu Mazumdar .Jangal Santhal a village head revolted and the movement became violent over non-payment of land revenue. In 1967 CPI {M} split into CPI {M-L} this movement spread quickly to less developed areas and states. 
 
 
The main bone of contention  are schedule 5 and 9 of constitution allowing limited  tribal autonomy with regard to exploiting natural resources of the land of tribal’s.  They also advocate land ceiling laws limiting land to be held by landlords and distribution of surplus land to landless labourers.  The chasm between both has increased so much that it has taken a violent armed movements form. Other than land and its use and distribution the other factor which has contribu .Other than land and its use and distribution the other factor which has contributed to this movement is caste factor. Caste and discrimination which is accompanied with it have seen many massacres especially in Bihar.
 
As is evident that required and adequate attention has never been paid to this problem resulting in frustration and ultimately taking resort to armed action. Land records in interior tribal areas are either non-existent or incomplete, social and economic discrimination and .exploitation have added fuel to the fire. It will be worth mentioning that at national level sincere and concentrated efforts to go to the roots of problem are lacking. States at their level are trying to deal with the problem. What should have been tackled at the beginning or infancy has been allowed to take a gigantic proportions-covering 10 states at present. The area covered by Naxalite militancy is now referred as RED CORRIDOR. Due to inept handling and lack of sustained efforts centrall .centrally the problem has become critical now. Talks between both sides have broken down and armed rebellion and counter measures are now order of the day.
 
Armed Rebellion
 
Armed skirmishes between Naxalites and security forces are now order of the day. Both sides now it seems are hell bent on solving the problem by use of force and arms. In 2007 Naxalite violence was active in 14 states and covered 40% area or 92,000 sq km of area. In2009, 180 districts of 10 state were covered by Naxalite violence. In 2010 Karnataka was removed from the list. In 2011, 83 districts of 9 states were covered by Naxalite violence. 
 
Districts and States covered now are 5 districts of Odisha,14 districts of Jharkhand, 5 districts of Bihar, 10 districts of Andhra Pradesh, 10 districts of Chhattisgarh, 8 districts of Madhya Pradesh, 2 districts of Maharashtra and 8 districts of West Bengal. In WB districts west of Howrah are affected by insurgency. In 2009 Integrated Action Plan was made for funding at grass root level economic development and had some salbourious effect on insurgency. We will now cover –up Naxalite movemen in some adversely effected states, to give readers an idea of how this militancy is financed only by extortion. To have general idea extortion worth 14 billion INR or US$30 million is done annually. This is the funding for insurgency and shows the quantum of revenue generated. It will be pertinent to note that revenue generated is more than required for insurgency.
 
Naxalite Movement and Effect in States
 
Odisha.   The movement seems to be on decline, from 17 districts it came down to 9 districts and finally to 5 districts.  Lately there has been no significant increase in encounters. Nevertheless the need to curb and control militancy is there.
 
Jharkhand.  Jharkhand has raised Industrial Security Force on line of CISF to prevent Naxalites from damaging Industrial property. They have been quite successful in this venture. They have also given special training to Police personnel’s to deal with with Naxalites. In addition to these measures sharing of information on Naxalite movement between governments of Bihar, Jharkhand, UP and WB has been signed to prevent them from escaping into neighboring states. 
 
Chhattisgarh.  A badly affected state due to central location, proximity to citadel of insurgency, AP, and jungle terrain and large adivasi population. It gained international attention in 2013 when a convoy of congressmen was ambushed in Darbha valley and Mahindra Karma, VC Shukla and Congress chief of state NK Patel were killed by Naxalites. There have been countless ambushes, encounters, explosions of IED in the state. Needless to say there have been countless casualt to say there have been countless casualties on both sides. Salwa-Judum started with lot of fanfare didn’t have the desired results and whatever little impact was there has been nullified.
 
Bihar.  The divide on caste basis seems more than anything else in Bihar. To deal with adivasis the upper castes formed Ranveer Sena and there have been many massacres of rivals by both sides. 0nly 5 districts of Bihar are affected by naxal movement. 0ne hears of sporadic violenc only.
 
Andhra Pradesh. Ten districts of Andhra Pradesh are affected by Naxalite movement. The state has raised special anti-insurgency force and has trained its police force well. Para –military groups like Fear Vikas, Green Tigers etc have come up and there is appreciable decline in militancy.
 
West Bengal.    Area west of Howrah which is economically lagging and is less developed is affected. Only 8 districts are included in militan dominated area. There has been considerable improvement in the situation.
 
Measures Being Adopted to Curb Militancy
 
In a high level meeting existing resources and efforts were discussed. The following additional measures will be used;
 
 
 
Satellite technology will be used to map area.
 
Additional 80,000 security forces will be used to capture area from Naxal stronghold.
 
Use of UAV [Unarmed Vehicle] or Drones will be made to locate and neutralize insurgents.   American drones will be procured and used for this purpose.
 
Conclusion
 
What started as legacy of British rule has turned out to be focal point of militancy. Incomplete or lack of land records especially in tribal areas and .and their discrepancies eventually led to this situation. Without taking sides this situation can be termed as unfortunate and avoidable. Greater discretion, a calm and peaceful approach on part of both adversaries could have prevented this situation. The amount of exchequer money being spent on this could have been used for development purposes. There is no problem in this world which cannot be solved by negotiations. Unfortunately it’s only the military wing of Naxalites which seems operationa .Political wing should now come forward to hold a temporary truce and start negotiations with authorities. At present it seems that only military wing of the movement is in control and given the amount of money being received from extortion they are satisfied with fait accompli.
 
Government on their part should send feelers for temporary truce and talks with Naxalites. When communism is on decline all over the world both parties have to show the will for a peaceful and mutually acceptabl solution. If both parties agree for a Give and Take approach and come to negotiation tables and work out a peaceful solution acceptable to both it will be another golden letter day in Indian history. History is a witness that war brings only a temporary solution to a problem and peaceful negotiations bring a permanent solution to it. By now the naxalites should realize that slowly and steadily their movement has ultimately converted to an armed struggle only and in this considering the resources at the disposal of the state it is a very one-sided and unequal battle. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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