Indian National Congress in Indian Politics
Indian National Congress (INC)
President: Sonia Gandhi
About,Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress (Congress) is a broad-based political party in India. Founded in 1885, the Congress led India to independence from Great Britain,
After India's independence in 1947, the Congress formed most federal goverments in India, and many regional state governments.The Congress is a secular, left-of-centre, party. Although it did not fare well in the last general elections in India in 2014, it remains one of two major, nation-wide, politial parties in India, along with the right-wing, Hindu nationalist, Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP).
The Congress was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire in Asia and Africa.It was founded in Bombay in late December 1885, during the British Raj in India. Its principal founders were, Allan Octavian Hume (a former administrator of Etawah district, North-Western Provinces, and pioneering ornithologist of India), as well as William Wedderburn, Pherozeshah Mehta, Dadabhai Naoroji, Dinshaw Wacha, and others.
From the late 19th-century, and especially after 1920, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Congress became the principal leader of the Indian independence movement, with over 15 million members and over 70 million participants.
From 2004 to 2014, the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance, a coalition of several regional parties, formed the Indian government and was headed by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. As of March 2017, the party is in power in five states: Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Meghalaya and Mizoram. In Bihar, it is a part of the ruling coalition.
The Congress has previously directly ruled Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Goa. In the 2014 general election, the Congress had its poorest post-independence general election performance, winning only 44 seats of the 543-member house.
Foundation of INC
Early Years of Indian National Congress
INC In Mass Movement
After Indian independence in 1947, the Indian National Congress became the dominant political party in the country. In 1952, in the first general election held after Independence, the party swept to power in the national parliament and most state legislatures. The party held power nationally until 1977 when it was defeated by the Janata coalition.
It returned to power in 1980 and ruled until 1989, when it was once again defeated. It formed the government in 1991 at the head of a coalition, as well as in 2004 and 2009, when it led the United Progressive Alliance. During this period the Congress remained centre-left in its social policies while steadily shifting from a socialist to a neoliberal economic outlook. The Party's rivals at state level has been national parties the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPM), and various regional parties such as the Telugu Desam Party.
INC In Jawaharlal Nehru's Leadership(1947-1966)
From 1951 until his death in 1964, Jawaharlal Nehru was the Congress' paramount leader under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi, whose Indian independence movement dominated the Congress Party. Congress gained power in landslide victories in the general elections of 1951–52, 1957, and 1962.
During his tenure, Nehru implemented policies based on import substitution industrialisation and advocated a mixed economy, where the government-controlled public sector co-existed with the private sector.He believed the establishment of basic and heavy industries was fundamental to the development and modernisation of the Indian economy.
During his period in office, there were four known assassination attempts on Nehru.The first attempt on his life was during partition in 1947 while he was visiting North-West Frontier Province in a car. The second was by a knife-wielding rickshaw-puller in Maharashtra in 1955.
The third attempt happened in Bombay in 1956.The fourth was a failed bombing attempt on railway tracks in Maharashtra in 1961.Despite threats to his life, Nehru despised having excess security personnel around him and did not like his movements to disrupt traffic.In 1964, Nehru died because of an aortic dissection, raising questions about the party's future.