Member of Legislative Assembly
A Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA) is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district (constituency) to the Legislature of a State in the Indiansystem of government. Each state has between seven and nine MLAs for every Member of Parliament (MP) that it has in the Lok Sabha.. Through the elections to the legislative assembly, the state’s Chief Minister, his Council of Ministers and rest of the MLAs are elected. All the essential information about the various governments and their tenures in qualification for Membership of the Legislative Assembly,Exclusive Powers of Legislative Assembly,legislative powers of Legislative Assembly,presiding officers in Legislative Assembly etc.
There is no uniform number of seats allocated to state assemblies; it differs from state to state. The number of seats for a particular assembly is fixed and decided by the Election Commission of India on the basis of the population of the respective states. For instance, the legislative assembly of Gujarat has the highest number of assembly seats with 182. Similarly, the legislative assembly of Sikkim has merely 32 seats owing to its small population. Members of a Legislative Assembly are direct representatives of the people of the particular state as they are directly elected by an electorate consisting of all citizens above the age of 18 of that state. Its maximum size as outlined in the Constitution of India is not more than 500 members and not less than 60 members. However, the size of the Vidhan Sabha can be less than 59 members through an Act of Parliament.All members of the Legislative Assembly are elected on the basis of adult franchise, and one member is elected from one constituency. Just as the President has the power to nominate 2 Anglo Indians to the Lok Sabha, similarly, the Governor also has the power to nominate 1 member from Anglo Indian's community as he/she deems fit, if he/she is of the opinion that they are not adequately represented in the Assembly.
Qualification for Membership of the Legislative Assembly
A person seeking membership of the legislative assembly must possess the following qualifications:
1. He must be a citizen of India.
2. He must not be less than 25 years of age.
3. He must have a sound mind.
4. He must not have any criminal record declared by a competent court.
5. He must not be bankrupt.
6. He should be a voter from any constituency of the concerned state.
Legislative Powers of Legislative Assembly
In the legislative sphere, both the Houses have been given equal powers by the Constitution. Law making is the prime responsibility and function of the assembly.
Exclusive Powers of Legislative Assembly
• A motion of no confidence can only be initiated in the Vidhan Sabha.
• In the case of money bill, the Vidhan Sabha is the sole authority.
• In ordinary bills, the decision of the Vidhan Sabha is final.
• By a majority of two-thirds, the Vidhan Sabha can ask the President to create or dissolve the Vidhan Parishad.
• It has the powers to make laws on every subject in the state list and concurrent list.
• The members of the legislative assembly play a role in electing the President of India. The elected members of the legislative assemblies and the Parliament elect the President.
Presiding Officers in Legislative Assembly
The Speaker is responsible for conducting all the meetings of the Legislative Assembly. The Deputy Speaker presides over the house when the Speaker is absent. The Speaker manages the debates and discussions in the Vidhan Sabha and takes a neutral judgment. Both the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker are elected by the majority vote of the members of the Assembly.